• Heating/cooling curve.

  • Normal Boiling Point/ Freezing Point.

  • Density of water.

  • Heat of Fusion/Heat of Vaporization.

  • Intramolecular Forces vs Intermolecular Forces.

  • IMF

    • Ionic Forces

    • Hydrogen Bonding (N,O,F)

    • London Dispersion Forces

  • Evaporation and condensation.

  • Vapor Pressure.

  • Crystalline Solids

    • Ionic Solids

    • Molecular Solids

    • Atomic Solids

  • Alloys

    • Substitutional

    • Institial

Questions:

  1. What phrases of water exist at 100°C?

  2. What happens during the flat portions of the heating/cooling curve?

  3. Why does the top horizontal position take longer on the curve?

  4. What happens on the 3 diagonal positions on the curve?

  5. Solid water is more dense than liquid water. True or false?

  6. What are the forces holding a molecule together? Do these forces break at the melting point? Boiling point?

  7. What forces hold molecules together? DO these break at boiling point/melting point?

  8. What type of IMF holds CH4 together? K2SO4? H2O? CH3OH?

  9. What does being violated mean?

Chapter 15: Solutions

  • Saturated vs Unsaturated

  • Concentrated vs Dilute

  • Mass Percent

  • Molarity

  • Dilution

  • Stoichiometry of Solutions Reactions

  • Neutralization Reactions

Questions:

  1. True or False. When a solution can no longer dissolve any more solute, it is unsaturated.

  2. True or false. To dilute a concentrated solution, one should add more water.

  3. You have 500. grams of a salt solution, 25.3% of this solution is salt. What is the mass of water in the solution?

  4. A solution is made by adding 5.00 moles of HCl to make 2.00 L of solution. What is the molarity? If a solution is made with 5.00g of HCl to make 2.00 mL of solution. Which is more concentrated?

  5. You have a 20.0 M stock solution of an acid. You want 500. mL of 3.5 M solution. What is the volume of the stock solute that you need?

Chapter 16: Acid/Base

  • Acids and bases are like electrolytes (Run current)

  • Arrhenius

  • Bronst Lowry Model

  • Conjugate Acid-Base Pair

  • Hydronium Ion (H3O+)

  • Strong Acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCLO4, HCL, HI)

  • Weak Acids

  • Amphoteric Substance

  • Kw = 1.0×10^-14 = [H+][OH-]

  • Acidic, Neutral, Basic Solution

  • pH scale

  • pH = -log[H+]

  • pH + pOH = 14.00

  • Buffered Solution

Questions:

  1. Acids and Bases can not run current.

  2. Which model was better Arrhenius or Bronsted Lowry model? Why?

  3. HC2H3O2 + NaOH → H2O = NaC2H3O2

Which is the conjugate base?

  1. What happens with a strong acid in water? Weak acid in water?

  2. If the concentration of [H+] = 1.5 x 10^-6 M, what is the [OH-] concentration? Is the solution acidic or basic? What is the pH? What is the pOH?

  3. If the pH is 12.30, is this basic or acidic? What is the [H+] concentration? [OH-]?

Chapter 17: Equilibrium

  • Collision Model

  • Activation Energy

  • Reaction Rates

  • Catalyst

  • K (Eq. Constant)

– Products/Reactants

  • Equilibrium Expression

– (Homogeneous/Heterogeneous)

  • Le Chatelier’s Principle

  • Ksp

  • Solving equilibrium problems

Questions:

  1. How do reactions occur?

  2. Are they all fast or slow?

  3. What is the energy needed for reaction to happen?

  4. How can one increase the forward direction of a reaction?

  5. HC2H3O3 (aq) + NaOH (aq) → H2O (l) + Na

Write the K expression.

  1. C4H8 (g) + O2 (g) → H2O (g) + CO2 (g)

Write the K expression.

  1. When a reaction reaches dynamic equilibrium, does the reaction stop? If it doesn’t, why not?

  2. Which one above is a homogeneous reaction? Heterogeneous reaction?

  3. In the reaction from question number 6, what happens if you increase the amount of oxygen gas? Decrease the amount of carbon dioxide gas? Increase in temperature? Decrease in pressure?

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