Roaring 20s; Great Depression & New Deal Study Guide

Vocab:

Bonus Army: An assemblage of 43,000 marchers who protested in the spring and the summer of 1932. War veteran wanted the cash payment of Service Certificates granted to them eight years earlier by the Adjusted Service Certificate Law of 1924. The problem was that the certificate could not be redeemed for until 1945.

Buying on a margin: Buying bonds with money borrowed from a broker.

Fundamentalist: Protestant religious movement grounded in the belief that everything in the bible should be taken as the literal truth.

Harlem Renaissance: flowering of African American artistic creativity during the 1920s, centered in the Harlem community of New York City.

Hoovervilles: Name of the shantytowns that were built by the unemployed homeless people during the Great Depression. They were called Hoovervilles because many Americans believed that President Hoover was responsible for the Great Depression.

Palmer Raids: The attempts made by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists from the United States.

Sacco and Vanzetti: Italian born anarchists who were convicted of murdering a guard and a paymaster. The two were tried, sentenced, and executed despite public opposition.

Teapot Dome Scandal: Government scandal that involved a navy oil reserve in Wyoming being secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921.

The Glass-Steagall Act:Law passed in 1933 that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Coporation to protect individuals’ bank accounts.

The Grapes of Wrath: A novel written by John Steinbeck that depicted that hardships of the poor during the Great Depression.

Wagner Act: A law enacted in 1935 to protect workers’ rights after Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. This law was also known as the National Labor Relations Act.

Study Questions:

1. What are the causes of the Dust Bowl?

A combination of drought, wind, and poor agricultural techniques caused the dust bowl.

2. What are some of the effect of the Great Depression?

High unemployment rate, increase in poverty, and general low to morale of Americans.

3. What was the government system called of giving payments or food to the poor?

Welfare.

4. Which of states suffered the most damage during the Dust Bowl period? How did they suffer?

Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado. It really caused a large drought and destroyed the plains.

5. What was the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act? What are some of its effects?

Law that was made in 1930 that made the highest protective tariff in the U.S. history. Worsened depression in both America and abroad.

6. Which New Deal program was most responsible for creating new jobs and putting people to work?

The Works Progress Administration. It paid millions of people for building schools and bridges.

7. List the pieces of New Deal legislation that was ruled unconstitutional and explain why they were ruled this way.

8. What was the goal of decreasing farm surpluses during the Depression?

Decrease in farm surpluses will increase the price for farm products.

9. After taking over the Presidency, what was the first major act taken by FDR?

He gave immediate support for the Emergency Banking Act.

10. Which New Deal policy(ies) had the biggest long-term impact on American economy?

Social security.

11. What best describes Hoover’s response to the Great Depression?

Basically did nothing.

12. How did FDR respond when a few of his New Deal programs were declared unconstitutional?

FDR proposed to congress that he be allowed to appoint six new Supreme Court justices.

13. What was the average overall unemployment rate during the Depression?

Average was between 8 and 35 percent.

14. How was the Depression of 1929 different from earlier economic depressions in American history?

A worldwide depression affected the economies of other countries.

15. Which agency was created to regulate the Stock Market and oversee the sale of stocks and bonds?

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

16. List/describe the major parts of The Social Security Act/Administration.

17. What is Charles Lindbergh famous for?

Charles is famous for making the first solo transatlantic airplane flight in 1927.

18. John T. Scopes challenged a Tennessee law that forbade the teaching of what?

Forbade the teaching of evolution.

19. How are The Civilian Corps (CCC), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) similar? What is the major goal(s) that they accomplished?

The CCC, WPA, and TVA, all created jobs for workers that had to do with the environment.

20. To many Californians, what did the arrival of the Dust Bowl refugees of the mid-1930s represent?

Californians opposed the arrival of the refugees, because they saw the refugees as competitors for the already limited job existing.

21. Where did people go to obtain liquor illegally in the 1920s and 1930s?

People went to places called speakeasies to illegally acquire their liquor. Speakeasies were underground clubs.

22. What is the name of the attorney who defended John Scopes and the now famous Scopes Monkey Trial?

Clarence Darrow

23. Which member of Harding’s administration is famously associated with the Teapot Dome Scandal?

Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall

24. What was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation established to do?

Agency established in 1932 to provide emergency financing to banks, life insurance companies, railroads and other large businesses.

25. Who claimed that the New Deal policies were inadequate and proposed a social program called Share-Our-Wealth?

Huey Long

26. Which New Deal program(s) reflected FDR’s concern for the natural environment?

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).

27. Why were some conservatives concerned when the federal government under President Franklin D. Roosevelt acted to improve the economic conditions of the people?

28. What event signaled the beginning of the Great Depression?

The stock market crash of 1929.

29. List and explain the numerous causes of the Great Depression.

Bank failures, agricultural depression/drought, reduction in consumer demand, international policy, and high tariffs.

30. What was the 1919 President campaign slogan of Warren G. Harding?

Warren G. Harding’s campaign slogan was ‘return to normalcy’.

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