Chapter 8 Muscular System



Sucking, whistling




Elevates Mandible


Squinting, closing the eyes

Orbicularis Oculi

Promotes grinding of the teeth

Lateral pterygoid

Extends the neck

Semispinalis Capitis

Pulls the shoulder down


Extend your arm

Tricpes Brachii

Raise and adduct scapula

Rhomboideus Major

Turn your forearm up


Hold out your arm even with shoulders


Cross your arm across your chest

Pectoralis Major

Rotates your arm medially


Flexes the vertebral column

Rectus Abdonomis

Raises the body from sitting position

Gluteus Maximus

Causes dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot

Tibialis Anterior

Flexes and rotates the leg laterally.

Biceps femoris

Extensor of the knee

Quadraceps femoris

Helps support the arch of the foot

Peronicus longus

Flexes the leg at the knee.


Chapter 9: Nervous System

  1. Meninges: Layered membranes that lie between soft brain coverings and the tissues of CNS. It protects the brain and spinal cord.

  2. Spinal Cord: Slender nerve column. Passes from brain to vertebral canal. Conducts impulses and serve as a center of spinal reflexes.

  3. Hypothalamus: Region of diencaphalon that include many nuclei (gray matter). Maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activity and linking nervous and endocrine system. Hypothalamus regulates the heart rate, the arterial blood pressure, body temperature, water/electrolyte balance, controlling hunger or weight, controlling movement, glandular secretion, produce neuro substance, sleepiness, and wakefulness.

  4. Thalamus: A dense mass within diencephalon. Central relay station impulses. Receives sensory impulses.

  5. Midbrain: Short section of the brain stem is a bundle of nervous tissue that connects cerebrum to spinal cord. Controls visual and muscle reflexes.

  6. Medulla Oblongata: Continuation of spinal cord within skull. Controls heart and lungs.

  7. Cerebellum: Back of skull in vertebrae. Coordinates and regulates muscle activity.

  8. Parietal Lobe: Reception and correlations of sensory information. Used to understand speech.

  9. Frontal Lobe: Part of the brain that lies behind the forehead. Controls behavior, learning, personality, and voluntarily movements.

  10. Temporal Lobe: Lies beneath temple. Controls hearing.

  11. Occipital Lobe: Posterior lobe. Controls visual perception.

Chapter 10: Somatic and Special Senses

  1. Chemoreceptor: Stimulated by changes in concentration of certain chemicals. (lollipop)

  2. Pain Receptor: Stimulated by the pain. (Stepping on a nail)

  3. Thermoreceptor: Stimulated by changes in temperature. (Grabbing a cold soda)

  4. Mechanoreceptor: Stimulated by changes in pressure or movement (squeezing into jeans)

  5. Photoreceptors: Stimulated by changes in the light. (Squinting at the sun)

Chapter 15: Digestive System

  1. Nasopharynx: Communicates with the nasal cavity and provides passageway for air.

  2. Oropharynx: Posterior soft palate. Passageway of food moving down from the mouth.

  3. Laryngopharynx: Below oropharynx. Passageway for both food and air. Use for swallowing.

  4. Esophagus: Food passageway that uses peristalsis.

  5. Stomach: Mix food with gastric juice. The region is used for digesting and absorption.

  6. Pancreas: Secretes digestive juice in small intestine.

  7. Liver: Metabolize, storage, filters blood, and detoxication.

  8. Gallbladder: Stores bile in the mucus.

  9. Small Intestine: Receives the secretion of pancreas and gallbladder. Absorbs the digestive produces.

  10. Large Intestine: Reabsorbs water and chyme. It also forms and stores feces.

Chapter 16: Respiratory System

  1. Nose: Opening for air

  2. Nasal Cavity: Nasal septum. Supports mucus membrane as a filter.

  3. Sinus: Reduces the weight of the skull.

  4. Pharynx: Passageway for air.

  5. Larynx: Passageway for air moving in and out of the trachea.

  6. Trachea: Filters air. Moves particle to pharynx.

  7. Bronchial Tree: Filters air. Distributes air to alveoli when gas exchange occurs.

  8. Lung: Houses the bronchial tree, blood vessels, connective tissue, lymphatic tissue, and nerves.

Chapter 13: Circulatory System

  1. What is a heart murmur?

Valve does not close properly.

  1. How is the cardiac cycle regulated?

Various intricate, neutral, and hormonal factors.

  1. What is the difference between the arterial and venous system?

Arterial system deal with oxygenated blood. Venous system with unoxygenated.

  1. What is the difference between arteries and arteriole, veins and venules, and capillaries?

Arteries carry oxygenated blood. Arterioles are thinner than arteries and also handle oxygenated blood. Veins carry deoxygenated blood. Venules are thinner than veins but also handle unoxygenated. Capillaries connects arteries and venules.

  1. How does gas exchange occur in capillaries?

The exchange is similar to how diffusion works. Gas moves from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.

  1. Describe capillary permeability?

Condition of capillary wall that enables substances in blood to pass into tissue spares or into cells.

Sequencing Questions:

  1. Describe the major events of muscle contraction.

Motor neurons end causes the release of acetylcholine. The acetylcholine diffuses across the gap to motor end plate. This in turn binds with receptors. Impulses re-initiated and travels along the sacrolemma into the tubules and into SR sacs. Calcium ions from SR to sarcoplasm. Myosin crosses bridge into thick myofilaments which bind to active site. Myosin cross bridge pull hin myofibrils toward sacromere center. Muscle tiber shorten.

  1. Describe the major events of muscle relaxation.

After the impulse, the SR pumps calcium ions back to sacs. As calcium are removed from troponin. Troponin molecules change shape and active site on actin are blocked. Myosin crosses bridges loses their grip. Thin myofilament side back to their original position. The muscle relaxes.

  1. Describe the events of inspiration beginning with the stimulation of phrenic nerve.

Thoracic cavity increases in size. Alveolar expands. Difference in atm causes air to enter and lungs to expand.

  1. Describe the events of expiration.

Expiration process: Exhale. Elatic and reticular fibers are stretched under tension. Inspiration muscle relax. Diaphragm muscle relaxes. The rib cage descends due to recoil. Thoracic cage volume decreases. Elastic lung resoil passively. Intrapulmary pressure rises. Air flows out of the lungs.

  1. Trace the path of blood flow through the heart.

Blood enters the right atrium through superior and inferior vena cava flows through the right tricuspid valve. Enters the right ventricle. Right ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary valve. Blood enters pulmonary trunk which divides to carry blood to lungs. Bloods returns from lungs through the pulmonary veins and enters left atrium and flows through left AV valve. Blood flows into left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic valve. Blood flows into aorta which carries blood into systematic circuit.