A Brief History of Judaism (Basic Timeline)

  • c2000 B.C. Covenant between Yahweh and Abraham
  • c1300 B.C. Entry into Canaan.
  • c900 B.C. Kingdom of Israel
  • 70 AD Destruction of the temple.
  • 1700s Persecution of Jew in Europe.
  • c1750 Development of Hasidism
  • 1941 Beginning of the Holocaust.
  • 1947 Establishment of the State of Israel.

Core Religious Beliefs

  • Monotheism
  • Torah
    • 613 Laws
    • Kosher Dietary Laws
  • Talmud – Collection of writings written by rabbis, scholars, and leaders. These writings are commentaries on Jewish law.
  • “Chosen People”
  • Nation of Israel
  • Messiah – “Savior”.

Jewish Denominations

  • Orthodox
    • Strict observance of the Torah
    • Hasidism
  • Conservative
    • Law is not static.
    • Changes in response to circumstances.
  • Reform
    • Observe moral laws/Reject ceremonial laws.
    • Religious practice is constantly evolving.

Jewish Holy Days

  • Shabbat
    • Sundown Friday to sundown Saturday.
  • Passover
    • Celebrated for eight days.
    • Feast of unleavened bread.
  • Rosh Hashanah
    • Jewish New Year
  • Yom Kippur
    • Day of Atonement
    • Communal fasting and praying for forgiveness.
  • Hanukkah
    • Festival of Lights

Other Key Terms

  • Temple
  • Synagogue
  • Rabbi – Can perform marriages.
  • Levi (Levite)
  • Bar Mitzvah/Bat Mitzvah – Celebration of the right of passage. Bar Mitzvah are for females. Bat Mitzvah are for males.

Hassidism

  • Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer (Ba’al Shem Tov)
  • Panetheism
  • Revival
  • Piety – goodness
  • Refinement – Ability to adopt and adjust.
  • Demystification.

Hasidic Customs/Traditions

  • Daily prayer/Study of Torah and Talmud.
  • Men’s dress
    • Dark suits/No Neckties/Button right to left.
    • Black Hats
      • Kolpik
  • Tzitzit
  • Forelocks
  • Long Beards
  • Women’s Dress
    • Conservative
    • Covered head.
  • Arranged marriages.
  • Segregated prayer and religious services.
  • Continued use of Yiddish.
  • Limited contract with gentiles.
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